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A CATALOGUE OF THE AMERICAN HESPERITIDAE IN THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY)

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? A

A CATALOGUE OF THE

AMERICAN HESPERITDAE

indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted

' | IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM “ESENTED

(NATURAL HISTORY) 3 00CT 1951

by BricaDIER W. H. EVANS

CSE. DIS.0: Honorary Associate, British Museum (Natural History)

Part I Introduction and Group A

PYRRHOPYGINAE

LONDON: PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES {OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM

SOLD AT THe British Museum (NaTurAL History), CROMWELL Roap, S.W.7 AND BY B. QuaritcH, LTD.,

AND H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE

IQ51

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF GENERA ANALYSIS OF SPECIES INDEX

PLATES’I TO 9

At end

_

INTRODUCTION

Although the collection of American Hesperiidae in the British Museum (Natural History) goes back to the very foundation of the Museum, there being still two specimens from Carolina in the Petiver collection, which dates from 1700, it cannot be said that a real beginning was made until 150 years later. ‘That specimens were received at intervals between these dates is evident from the MS catalogues which still exist in the Department of Entomology, but few of them can now be traced.

Material collected by traveller naturalists such as H. W. Bates, Edward Doubleday and other less well-known collectors began to find its way into the Museum from about 1840, in increasing volume, and much of it, especially from South and Central America, was described by A. G. Butler. Constant accessions during the last hundred years have now resulted in the building up of a collection of considerable magnitude, through gifts, purchases and bequests, of which the more important are the following:

1879. Bequest by W. C. Hewitson of his entire collection, containing most of his types.

1912. Bequest by H. J. Adams of a large general collection.

Ig12-15. Gift by F. Ducane Godman of the Godman and Salvin collection, which formed the basis of their Bzologia Centralt Americana.

1919. Bequest by E. Dukinfield Jones of an important col- lection from Parana and Sao Paulo.

1925. Gift by J. J. Joicey of a large general collection.

1931. Purchase of the R. Oberthiir collection, which more than doubled the Museum’s collection. It contained the Boisduval and Mabille collections with many of their types, as well as several of Latreille’s types.

1939. Bequest by Lord W. Rothschild of his great collec- tion. It contained the C. & R. Felder collection with many of their types.

Vil

INTRODUCTION

1947. Purchase of a collection made by A. Miles Moss in Para, containing valuable material relating to the early stages.

There has been a great deal published regarding the butterflies of the U.S.A. The great work by S. H. Scudder (1888) on the butterflies of the Eastern U.S.A. ranks as a classic. he Hesperiidae have been dealt with in detail by A. W. Lindsey, E. L. Bell and R. C. Williams who (1931) figured the genitalia of all the species. The Butterfly Book by W. J. Holland (1931) contains black and white or coloured figures of all the species, many made direct from the types.

The Hesperiidae of Central America were dealt with in detail by Godman & Salvin in their Bzologia, profusely illustrated with coloured figures and drawings of the genitalia.

For S. America a resumé of published work with coloured figures was published by A. Seitz (1921) in his Macrolepi- doptera of the World, vol. V, under the authorship of M. Draudt. ‘This work has been of the very greatest benefit to lepidopterists, but under the circumstances of its prepara- tion, rapidity of publication led to unavoidable inaccuracies and omissions. Since then notable publications have been Lepidopteros Argentinos by K. J. Hayward (1931-2); Butterflies of Trinidad by W. J. Kaye (1924-5); Butterflies of Cuba by R. C. Williams (1931). But apart from these, there has been a great deal of fragmentary work, consisting mostly of descriptions, though often accompanied by genitalia drawings. One result is that the nomenclature of the S. American Hesperiidae has become somewhat con- fused. E. L. Bell, R. C. Williams, and H. Skinner have done a great deal of good work towards straightening out some of the tangles, but much remains to be done and it is one of the principal objects of this work to carry this task further with the aid of the collections and library available in the British Museum (Natural History).

A system for the classification of the Hesperiidae of the World was published by E. Y. Watson in 1897 and it has been generally followed. Watson’s work was based on the Museum collection, which at that time was a small one.

Vill

INTRODUCTION

Godman and Salvin, who had at their disposal a far better collection, found it necessary to depart from Watson’s arrangement in details, while adhering to his general frame- work. Since then our conceptions of species and sub- species have changed, and the modern view is well expressed in Systematics and the Origin of Species by E. Mayr (1942). This view has been followed. An exhaustive study has been made of the male genitalia and other characters with the result that many modifications have been found necessary in the arrangement of the genera and species, but Watson’s general plan has not been interfered with.

The form in which the work is presented is that intro- duced by the author in The Identification of Indian Butterflies (1926 and 1932) and used in the Catalogue of the Hesperiidae of Europe, Asia and Australia(1949). ‘The genera are assem- bled in a number of Groups designated A, B, etc.; within each Group the genera are numbered serially, as also are the species within each genus; the keys are arranged so as to preserve the numbering. The index gives the Group letter, followed by the generic and specific numbers, and can thus be used for reference to the keys for Groups, genera and species, as well as to the plates.

A few self-explanatory abbreviations have been used, such as F for forewing, H for hindwing, upf, uph, unf, unh for upperside or underside of forewing or hindwing. The only technical term used, which is not in general use, is “nudum’’, which denotes the bared, or sensitive, portion of the antenna, that occupies the entire outer side of the apiculus (reflexed portion of the club) and may extend along the club. The variation of the nudum is considered to be of great taxonomic importance in the Hesperiidae.

No bibliography has been included. The year of publica- tion is given after the author’s name for all species and genera. In any library that contains the necessary literature, there is sure to be a copy of the Zoological Record, from which the exact references can readily be obtained. "There should also be available Junk’s Lepidopterorum Catalogus, containing complete references. ‘The parts dealing with the Hesperiidae have been ably compiled by H. H. Shepard of Minnesota, but the final part has not yet been published.

1X

INTRODUCTION

The genitalia of all species and many sub-species have been figured. ‘The figures are diagrams drawn freehand by the author: they are intended to indicate the differences between species and are not to be regarded as accurate representations drawn to scale. For each species the first figure depicts the ventral view of the uncus and aedeagus, the second gives the side view thereof from the left, and the last the inside view of the left clasp. When the clasps are asymmetric, the inside view of the right clasp is added. In this connection it should be noted that individual and sub- specific variation in a species is often considerable and that a careful study of the available material is needed to decide whether a variation from the diagram is sufficient to justify separation as a species or a sub-species.

The American fauna is very much more prolific in species than that of the Old World and several years of work as well as more than one volume will be needed for completing the Catalogue. It has, therefore, been decided to issue the Cata- logue of the American Hesperiidae in parts, commencing with the Pyrrhopyginae (Group A). -Each part will be indexed separately.

The author wishes to thank the Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History) for having permitted him to study their collections and for their acceptance of his work for publication. He also thanks the Keeper of Entomology, Mr. N. D. Riley, and Mr. A. G. Gabriel, in charge of the Rhopalocera, for the facilities he has been afforded. He is very grateful to Mr. E. L. Bell of the American Museum, New York, for assistance and the gift of specimens for study; also to Mr. W. H. 'T. Tams and the late Dr. A. S. Corbet of the staff of the British Museum, for advice and assistance in helping him to solve many of the taxonomic and nomenclatorial problems encountered.

£

Group A. PYRRHOPYGINAE ANALYSIS OF GENERA

The Pyrrhopyginae differ from the rest of the Hesperitdae in respect of a combination of the following characters:

(a) The stout blunt antennal club, which is obtusely angled about its commencement, so that the entire club lies in the apiculus (2.e. reflexed part of club) of 19 to 21 segments all of which are denuded of scales in front.

(b) ‘The very long forewing cell, which is longer than the dorsum and more than two-thirds as long as the costa.

(c) The position of vein 5 of the forewing, which, at its origin, is nearer to vein 4 than to vein 6. The remaining characters are detailed in the Key to the Genera.

I believe the Pyrrhopyginae to be co-ancestral with the Old World Coeladinae and to represent the evolution of the branch that accompanied America in its Wegener journey from Europe and W. Africa to where we now find it. In this connection attention may be drawn to the exact superficial similarity between Pyrrhopyge ruficauda of Brazil and Coeliades aeschylus of W. Africa; also to the remarkable resemblances between Pyrrhopyge phidias bixae of America and Coeliades bixana of Africa, and between Pyrrhopyge chalybe of Mexico and Choaspes benjaminiu of India. Nature seems to have hit on a remarkably successful trend of evolu- tion at the time when the great continental drift began, and what we now see is the success she achieved in the strenuous struggle for existence on the moving continent as compared with the more static conditions in the Old World. The American Pyrrhopyginae number 143 species as against 19 species of the Coeliadinae in Africa and 54 species in Asia to Australia.

The classification of the Pyrrhopyginae presents problems of unusual interest. The subfamily itself is compact, but it is necessary to draw attention to certain developments that have occurred in the other two cosmopolitan subfamilies of the Hesperiidae, namely, the Pyrginae and the Hesperiinae.

E

GROUP A. PYRRHOPYGINAE

The Pyrgine genus Phocides is made up of species which, in respect of structure and genitalia, are definitely congeneric, but in appearance Phocides polybius, pigmalion and yokhara are as widely divergent as the Pyrrhopygine species, Pyrrhopyge phidias, Femadia hewitsoni and Mimoniades yokhara, which they respectively resemble. The resem- blances are so close that one is led to think that there is something wrong with our system of classification, which postulates that Phocides is more nearly related to the Pyrgine genera, such as Pyrgus and Erynnis than it is to the Pyrrho- pygine genera. ‘he same remarks apply to two Hesperiine genera, where the resemblances of the Pyrrhopygine species Pyrrhopyge phidias and Sarbia xanthippe to the Hesperiine species Pyrrhopygopsis socrates and Pseudosarbia phoenicola respectively, are too striking to be passed over as either accidental or due to mimicry. However, this is not the time or place to discuss phylogeny, but it should be noted that species widely differing in appearance may be very closely allied, and, conversely, species appearing identical may be far apart structurally.

E. L. Bell (1931, fourn. New York Ent. Soc. 39:417) com- menced a most interesting analysis of the Pyrrhopyginae. He discovered several new species in the genera Pyrrhopyge and Femadia, which had been confused with other exactly similar species, but had different genitalia. He also found that cer- tain widely differing species, in different genera, had almost identical genitalia, for example, Pyrrhopyge intersecta, Femadia theseus and Mimoniades iphinous. 1 have ventured in this publication to assemble these species in a new genus under the name Elbella after the discoverer of their affinity.

With a considerably larger material the work initiated by Bell has been continued at the British Museum, and W. H. Evans (1931, Proc. R. Ent. Soc. A. 16:23) published some preliminary results. It was found that the specimens hitherto identified as Pyrrhopyge hyperict, all looking alike, and all from Para, broke up into 7 species on genitalia differences. ‘Then it was found that specimens from other areas, identified as Pyrrhopyge phidias and Pyrrhopyge bixae also broke up into a number of species. Finally, it was observed that the patterns of genitalia found in “hyperici”’

2

A. PYRRHOPYGINAE

were repeated in ‘“‘piidias” and “‘bixae’’. ‘The conclusion was that there are a number of widespread species in S. America, which in particular areas look identical, but have remarkably different sub-species in other areas, in each one of which they look identical, so that the specific identity of any par- ticular specimen can only be ascertained by a genitalia examination. The discovery of this form of variation is not claimed as new; it occurs in all forms of nature throughout the Malay islands and elsewhere. But in no case that I have observed are the similarities between quite distinct species in the same area so exact.

As a result of these and other discoveries, as will be seen from the Key to the genera and species, many changes have been necessitated in the classification and nomenclature of the Pyrrhopyginae.

The material contained in the Museum consists of 10,100 specimens, which have been arranged in 20 genera (5 new), 143 species (16 new), and additional 143 sub-species (64 new): 99 published names have been placed as synonyms of species and 7 as synonyms of genera. ‘The Museum has the types of 87 species, g1 sub-species and 19 of names placed as synonyms.

A. PYRRHOPYGINAE. 20 genera in 4 sections.

la (20). F end cell oblique and parallel to termen. tb (14a). Antennal club bent to apiculus before its thickest part. 1c (6a). Antennal apiculus tapering throughout its length to a fine point. Hind legs hairy on outside of tibia and inside of femur.

I. Pyrrhopyge Section. 5 genera.

1 (2a). H lower end of cell more or less at right angles to vein 4 and concave to termen: veins 3 and 4, also veins 6 and 7, wide apart at their origins. F origin of vein 4 typically mid origins of veins 3 and 6, but in two groups of species it is mid veins 3 and 5. Uncus generally broad and divided, as well as being flanked by side flanges: aedeagus typically short and straight, with a small trian- gular projection on the right side.

3

A. PYRRHOPYGINAE

Pyrrhopyge. 58 species in II groups.

2a (1). H lower end of cell oblique and straight: veins 3 and 4 approximate, and veins 6 and 7 much closer together at their origins. 2b (4a). F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 6 at their origins.

2 (3). H lower end cell mid base and termen. Uncus slender, undivided: aedeagus typically bent back at tip. Elbella nov: type Pyrrhopyge scylla Menetries 1855: named

after Mr. E. L. Bell of New York: 15 species in 3 groups.

3 (2). H lower end of cell much nearer termen than base. F cubitus between veins 3 and 4 very long and arched: veins 6 and 7 coincident for one-third of their length from cell, as in the Pyrgine genus Phocides. Mid tibiae spined, a unique feature in the subfamily.

Zonia nov: type Zonia zonia Evans (described page 48). I species.

4a (2b). F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 5 at their origins.

4 (5). H lower end of cell much nearer termen than base. Mid and hind tibiae without the usual spurs.

Nosphistia. 1 species.

5 (4). H lower end of cell mid base and termen. Genitalia of the Pyrrhopyge type.

Jemadia. 7 species.

6a (1c). Antennal apiculus not tapering until near the tip, which is bluntly pointed or rounded.

Il. Mimoniades Section. 8 genera.

6b (12a). Hind leg femur hairy on inner side.

6c (10a). Hind leg tibia hairy on outer side.

6d (9g). F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 5 at their origins.

6e (8). H vein 2 arising well before vein 7.

6 (7). F vein 2 much nearer base than vein 3, as usual. Mimoniades. 9 species. 7 (6). F vein 2 mid base and vein 3. Ardaris. 1 species. 8 (6e). H vein 2 and vein 7 opposite at their origins. Amenis. 2 species.

4

A. PYRRHOPYGINAE

9 (6d). F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 6 at their origins. Facies of Sarbia: venation of Pyrrhopyge: genitalia of Elbeila. Hegesippe nov: type Sarbia hegesippe Mabille and Boullet

1908. 2 species.

10a (6c). Hind leg tibiae smooth on outer side. 10 (11). H veins 3 and 4 stalked beyond end cell. Sarbia. 6 species.

I! (10). H vein 4 from before end of cell. Metardaris. 1 species.

[2a (6b). Hind leg femur smooth on inner side. £2)(13). EH termen even.

Mysoria. 5 species.

13 (12). H termen conspicuously crenulate. Microceris. 1 species.

14a (1b). Antennal club bent to apiculus at thickest part: apiculus slender and tapering to a point. Uncus narrow and aedeagus long. Hind leg in 2 lightly fringed inside femur and outside tibia: in ¢ may be as in 2 or furnished on inside of femur and tibia with dense brown inter- mingling hair tufts, the only secondary sexual character in the subfamily.

lil. Myscelus Section. 6 genera.

14b (18a). H apex angled: if a line were drawn from the

end of vein 1b to the end of vein 8, the greatest extension

of the wing would be at the end of vein 4.

14c (17). H veins 3 and 4 not stalked.

14d (16). F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 6. End uncus bifid.

14 (15). F apex not truncate. ¢ hind leg not modified.

H termen crenulate, produced only at tornus. Croniades. 2 species.

[5 (14). F apex truncate and excavate to vein 5. ¢ hind leg not available. F veins 6 and 7 stalked in g. H termen in © produced at end of vein 4.

Azonax. 1 species.

5

A. PYRRHOPYGINAE

16 (14d). F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 5. End uncus not divided: aedeagus bifid in 2 species. ¢ hind leg with dense brushes. H termen produced at end of vein 2 in ¢ and vein 4 in °.

Myscelus. 10 species.

17 (14c). H veins 3 and 4 stalked. F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 5: veins 6 and 7 more or less stalked. ¢ hind leg with dense brushes. Uncus divided at tip: aedeagus not forked. Femadia-like.

Granila. 1 species.

18a (14b). H apex rounded: greatest extension of wing at end of vein 6. Uncus undivided. Pyrrhopyge-like.

18 (19). F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 6. H veins 3 and 4 not stalked. Hind leg in ¢ with dense tufts. Anal tuft red. Passova nov: type Pyrrhopyge passova Hewitson 1866.

8 species.

19 (18). F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 6. H veins 3 and 4 stalked. 3 hind leg not modified. Anal tuft black.

Aspitha nov: type Pyrrhopyge aspitha Hewitson 1866. 5 species.

20 (1a). F end cell upright, convergent with termen at tor- nus: vein 4 mid veins 3 and 6: costal vein running un- usually close to the sub-costal, so that in one species vein 11 has been eliminated, a unique feature in the Hesperiidae. H cell very long: veins 3 and 4 stalked or separate. 3

hind leg more densely hairy than usual: no 2 available for

comparison. Antennae as in Pyrrhopyge.

IV. Oxynetra Section. 1 genus. Oxynetra. 4 species.

The characters given in the key and the genitalia diagrams furnish sufficient justification for the arrangement adopted, as well as for the creation of the five new genera and the suppression of the genera Mahotis and Agara. But some further explanation is needed for the submergence to Pyrrhopyge of the genera Yanguna and Apyrrhothrix.

6

A.1. PYRRHOPYGE

Yanguna was separated by Watson from Pyrrhopyge on the more forward position of vein 3 of the forewing. This is a good character and, as all Yanguna species had hyaline spots on the forewing and Pyrrhopyge species had not, Yanguna appeared to be a perfectly satisfactory genus. But Yanguna is divisible into two well-marked groups (arinas and cometes), of which the first seems more allied to Pyrr- hopyge than to the second group. Also Pyrrhopyge rhacia has genitalia almost identical with Yanguna rubricollis, while those of Pyrrhopyge ruficauda are of a similar type. The creation of a new genus for the Arinas group was considered, but the claims to generic separation of the hygiera and jonas groups could not then be overlooked.

Apyrrhothrix was introduced by Lindsey for araxes prin- cipally on the basis of the stouter antennal club. Bell 1931 included maculosa, but that species has the antennal club of Pyrrhopyge and, though maculosa and araxes may be generically inseparable, the principal raison d’étre of Apyrr- hothrix fails.

Since clear generic definitions seemed impossible, it was decided to abandon these two genera.

ANAEYSIS“OF SPECIES

A.1. PYRRHOPYGE Hibner 1819: type phidias Linnaeus: fixed by Scudder 1872 as bixae Linnaeus, which is considered tobe a form of phidias. See Evans 1940 (fourn. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 48:405). Synonyms. Tamyris Swainson 1820: type piidias Linnaeus: sole species included was -zeleucus Fabricius, which is considered to be a synonym of phidias.

Pachyrhopala Wallengren 1858: type phidias Linnaeus: sole species included.

2 7

A.1. PYRRHOPYGE

Yanguna Watson 1893: type spatiosa Hewitson: specified by author. Apyrrhothrix Lindsey 1921: type araxes Hewitson: specified by author.

1a (42a). End of abdomen red (or orange). Abdomen not striped. tb (35a). Upf without spots. F vein 4 mid veins 3 and 6. tc (20a). ‘Tegulae black. Head and palpi red (or orange). 1d (13a). H cilia white (rarely pale yellow or brown in sub-species). te (10a). Patagia and fore coxae black. 1 (2a). H conspicuously crenulate. Wings abnormally broad: costa H = dorsum F. Head with mixed black and orange hairs: cheeks orange. Shining blue. g F 30 mm. Genitalia nearest to the hygieia group: aedeagus turned back at tip.

Il. Jonas Group. Single species.

jonas Felder 1859: 2 Mexico: type B.M. Fig in Seitz: g fig and genitalia G & 5S 1893. Synonym. cydonia Druce 1874: 3 Mexico: type B.M. B.M. 5 ¢ 4 @ Mexico. 2 $ Guatemala.

2a (1). H not conspicuously crenulate. Cheeks black.

Il. Phidias Group. 8 species.

2b (7a). Uncus, seen ventrally, divided by a very narrow slit. 2 ostium, seen ventrally, trident: dorsal arm longer than the ventral arm: side arms long and usually diver-

nt. 2 (3a). Cuiller of clasp, on dorsal side, with a more or less conspicuous nose before the elongate basal arm. Uncus flanges very broad, of same length as uncus, heavily spined at tip in front, as well at sides and back.

phidias. 10 sub-species. Note. The sub-species in this group are not arranged geographically as usual, but by the four types of hindwing facies, termed hyperici, bixae, sergius and phidias.

A.1. PYRRHOPYGE

(a). hyperici form. Uph with a pale blue central area from end cell to mid termen. Unh white basal area extends to within 4 mm. of termen, outwardly even, filling ? of space 8: veins undarkened. Collar and back of head black. Cilia F brown. 3 termen excavate on F in space 1b and on H between veins 2 and 6. ¢ F 22 mm. End of cuiller produced, finely serrate along inner edge. Sub-sp. hyperici Hiibner 1823: ¢ Brazil: figured. Fig Seitz: genitalia fig Bell 1931. | B:M. 273 25 2 Para (Cameta). (b). bixae form. Uph plain: unh with a white basal band, which is broad, reaching end of cell, middle of space 8 and bases of spaces 2 and 6. Cilia F white to vein 4. Wings less excavate. ¢ F 25 mm. End of cuiller produced. Sub-sp. latifasciata Butler 1873: 3 Bogota: type B.M. Fig Seitz. B.M. 5 3 1. 2 Colombia. (c). bixae form. Unh typically the basal band occupies + of the wing, not reaching end cell, middle of space 8, nor base of space 6 and is outwardly curved, but some specimens approach latifasciata or evansi. Cilia F more or less white to apex. Wings more or less conspicuously excavate. ¢ F 25 mm. End of cuiller produced. Sub-sp. bixae Linnaeus 1758: America: fig Merian pl 44 from Surinam. Fig Seitz pl 162 d as phidias 2 underside. Synonym. maenas Fabricius 1787: Indies. B.M. 6 6 62 Surinam. 12 g 15 2 Fr Guiana. 53 ¢ 26 9 Amazons (Santarem to Iquitos). 3 7 2 N.E. Brazil (Pernambuco, Maranhao). 1 ¢ 1 2 Matto Grosso. (d). bzxae form. Like bixae, but the wings are not exca- vate, the colouring is more purple and the cilia F whiter. 3 F 26mm. Cuiller produced. Sub-sp. rusca nov: ¢ Huambo, Peru: type B.M. B.M. 12 3 1 2 Ecuador (Zamora). 10 ¢ N. Peru (Charape, Manchari). 11 g C. Peru (Loreto, Rio Inambari, eee pote, Ucayali, Carabaya, Pichis Rd.). (ec). bixae form. Unh band narrow, divided by dark veins and the outer edge straight from costa to mid space Ic. Collar red. Cilia white nearly to the apex F. Wings not excavate. ¢ F 26mm. Cuiller is short and rounded.

9

A.r. PYRRHOPYGE

Sub-sp. evansi Bell 1947: 3 Muzo, Colombia. Genitalia fig as phidias by G & S and Bell 1931.

B.M. 1 3 Mexico. 1 g 1 9 Costa Rica. 11 3 14 2 Panama. 108 g 8 2 Colombia. 9 3 6 2 Ecuador (Lita, Zamora). (f). sergius form. Unh with a broad white border, nearly reaching end cell and crossed by dark veins. 3 F 26 mm. Cuiller produced.

Sub-sp. leucoloma Erschoff 1876: 3g Peru, Monterico: figured. Genitalia fig by Bell 1931.

B.M. 31 3 Peru (Chanchamayo, Huancabamba, Perene, La Merced, Rio Colorado, Hillapani). 2 3 Bolivia (Yungas, La Paz).

(g). phidias' form. Unh no white band. Uph and unh the border more or less irregularly white, particularly in space Ic unh. g Wings excavate. ¢ F 26 mm. Cuiller produced.

Sub-sp. garata Hewitson 1866: 2 “‘Surinam’”’: type B.M.

Fig Seitz: genitalia fig Bell 1934. B.M. 11 3.13 2 Br Guiana. 1 ¢ Venezuela. 1 2 Surinam (type). | . (h). phidias form. Unh unmarked. Head, collar, palpi and end of abdomen orange. Cilia white to apex F. 3 F 25 mm. Cuiller not produced, short and rounded, as in evans. !

Sub-sp. zenodorus Godman & Salvin 1893: 3 Guatemala: type B.M.: figured, as well as genitalia. Genitalia fig Bell 1931.

BA. 5 672 Mexico. 2 § 2 9 Guatemala. 3 ¢ 5 2 Hon- duras. 9 ¢ 10 9 Costa Rica. (i). phidias typical. Unh unmarked. Head etc. red: collar red or reddish. Wings more or less excavate. ¢ F 25 mm. Cuiller produced as in bixae.

Sub-sp. phidias Linnaeus 1758: Indiis. Fig in Seitz is of bixae: genitalia fig G & S and Bell 1931 are of evansz. Synonym. gzeleucus Fabricius 1758: Indiis: fig Jones Icones. Fig Seitz.

B.M. 5 3 4 @ Colombia. 12 ¢ 8 2 Venezuela. 1 2 Suri- nam. 1 ¢ Br Guiana. 9 3 5 2 Trinidad. 1 ¢ Muimas Geraes. 1 2 Bahia. 1 3 Rio River. 1 2 Santa Catharina. 27g 1*2) no loo:

IO

A.1. PYRRHOPYGE

(j). phidias form. Usually with a strong purple shade. Wings not excavate. Back of head and collar red. 3 26 mm. Cuiller produced, but tip more rounded than in phidias.

Sub-sp. williamsi Bell 1931: 3 Peru: genitalia figured. B.M. 5 3 Peru. 6 ¢ 2 2 Bolivia. 1 9 Matto Grosso. 2 ? Parana. 1 2 Paraguay. (These females are very purple: genitalia of 2 phidias.)

3a (2). Cuiller of clasp without the nose of phidias : uncus flanges more slender. 3b (5a). Uncus flanges spined on the outside and at back. 3 (4). Cuiller on inner face serrate. 2 osttum with short side arms.

aziza.